Cannabis Plant Anatomy: From The Bottom To The Top
- Fan leaves
- Sugar leaves
- Pistils and stigmas
Without a doubt, cannabis claims the title as one of the most beautiful plants on Earth—from its glittering trichomes and signature leaves to its complex root system. Many growers frequent their grow rooms just to stand in awe at what grows before them.
Although the flowers get most of the attention—and rightly so—every part of this complex species has a critical and interesting function. As a cultivator, it helps to familiarise yourself with the anatomy of the cannabis plant. In doing so, you’ll develop an eye for what your plant requires, what it needs less of, and when to harvest.
Explore our in-depth guide below to see the cannabis plant like never before.
Although not genetically part of the cannabis plant, mycorrhizae form a mutually beneficial relationship with cannabis roots that helps both species survive and thrive. These fungi appear all throughout nature and form a fascinating symbiotic relationship with up to 90% of plant species.
Mycorrhizal fungi participate in a give-and-take relationship with cannabis plants. These species form networks of thin, hair-like filaments in the soil—known as mycelium—and produce enzymes to break down organic matter.
After liberating nutrients from the substrate, the mycelium uptakes and shuttles them around to plants. Because cannabis roots aren’t capable of this impressive function themselves, they have to “bargain” with the mycelium to access these nutrients. Luckily, plants produce sugars during photosynthesis, and transport many of these molecules down into the roots. Here, they swap these energy-rich exudates for the nutrients they need to fulfil important physiological functions.
Mycorrhizae ultimately act as an extension of the root system. Not only do they break down organic matter to release nutrients, but they also transport these important molecules from areas plants could otherwise not reach. Ultimately, mycorrhizal fungi play a fundamental role in plant nutrition and soil biology and chemistry.
This fusion between plant and fungi occurs in the rhizosphere, or root zone. The mycelium forms a sheath-like structure around the root tip that surrounds plant cells in the root cortex. Threads of hyphae—individual strands of mycelium—extend out into the soil where they break down organic matter and even connect one plant to another, forming a biological internet.
HOW TO BOOST MYCORRHIZAE PRODUCTION
Mycorrhizal fungi exist naturally in many different types of soil. However, there are numerous different species. To make the most of this synergistic relationship, introduce tried and tested mycorrhizal fungi products when planting or transplanting.Come inside to get to know every aspect of the cannabis plant, from terpene-producing trichomes to photosynthesising fan leaves and everything in between!
Why the cotyledon does not open cotyledons. What’s with the bush? Cannabis FAQ. Possible problems with seedlings
It is very rare when newcomers spend a hassle-free grove. When planning to grow cannabis, you should be prepared for the fact that you will encounter so many obscure things. To make it at least a little clearer, we have prepared a guide for you on the most common hemp problems. And since nobody managed to grasp the immense the first time around, this guide will be constantly updated and updated.
Seed / sprout / seedling
Planted a seed, but still no seedlings
If you are confident in the seeds, then most often you do not need to worry, on average, from planting to seedlings, it takes from 2 to 4 days, sometimes longer. A lot of factors affect seed germination: their age, storage conditions, genetics, planting depth, whether you sprouted them well or not, whether the land was too dry or vice versa – you planted a swamp there and the seed rotted. With experience, you will learn to plant correctly. In the meantime, you need to be patient. Never climb into the ground. Panic is after 7 days. If the sprout did not appear, well, now you can climb and see what happened. But more often everything comes out fine if you planted quality seeds.
The sprout got out with the shell from the seeds
Sometimes sprouts appear “in a helmet”, this is when the shell from the seed has not separated from the embryo in the ground, but appears on the surface with it. Often sprouts are clamped by this shell. In order for it to separate safely, the sprout should be moistened with a spray bottle and covered with a transparent plastic cup. From moisture, the shell becomes soft and it is easier for the cotyledons of the sprout to pierce it. However, in some cases, the shell remains. Then you need to remove it yourself – very, very carefully separate it with tweezers.
The sprout got out, but not green, but yellow
Most likely, nothing terrible is happening. Immediately after germination, the sprout has not yet started the correct metabolic processes, such as photosynthesis. Do not worry, after a few hours you will see how the sprout from pale yellow becomes green and in general is filled with life. If this does not happen and after a day the sprout is still yellow and does not show signs of life, then either the seeds you got were of poor quality, or the sprout began to rot in the ground from excess moisture. However, there are other reasons.
A sprout stretches on a stalk and remains thin
This phenomenon is called stretch and occurs with absolutely all sprouts. An experienced grower leaves a place in the pot in advance and pours the earth there in the first few days of active sprouting. After a few days, the sprout stops stretching and begins to form the first leaves. However, if active stretching continues, then this is most likely a signal that the sprout has little light – move the lamp down.
The germ slows down and develops slowly
There can be many reasons for this. Sometimes these are the features of genetics (specify in the group reports according to your grade), but more often these are schools with conditions and care. What to look for first? The main thing: temperature, humidity, frequency and volume of irrigation, is there enough light, is the soil composition optimal. For example, too greasy soil can cause “brakes” in the early stages of seedling development. It is important to understand that your cannabis always grows very slowly, watching it every day, you sometimes do not perceive the dynamics of its growth so clearly. Scroll through other people’s growports according to your variety and compare the appearance of the plants. If your pet is clearly and very different, then this is an occasion to think hard. If the differences are not significant, then there is no need to panic.
New leaflets appear twisted and deformed.
Leaf mutation in the early stages of seedling life is not so rare. And even the old and proven hemp varieties suffer from it. For example, Blueberry from Dutch Passion. Mutation is not always a sentence for a crop. Most growers leave mutants and successfully grow them. If you see that in general, despite its plain appearance, the plant develops at a good pace, then such a bush can be left. If the mutant really grows poorly, then it makes more sense to make room for a healthy bush.
The cotyledons of the sprout turn yellow
The death of cotyledons is a natural process. It begins with the beginning of the active growth of the bush, when it forms several internodes on the main trunk (floors) and the foliage hides the cotyledons in dense shade. However, if the cotyledons began to turn yellow at the earliest stages of germination, this signals serious problems with growing conditions. And the wrong soil and water composition for irrigation, including the wrong pH level, is most often to blame. The sprout may turn yellow from excessive watering. What can be done in this situation? In the cotyledons of the sprout, the stock of nutrients for the sprout is concentrated until the leaves appear and the photosynthesis factory is fully operational. This means that if the cotyledons were damaged when there is no foliage, then this can become fatal for the sprout. If the problems started with any leaves, the plant will survive, provided that you find out and adjust the reasons why premature death of the cotyledons began. Otherwise, the foliage will soon begin to hurt.
The bush is too long – the internodes are long, the foliage is small, and it grows on long skinny stems
A very frequent jamb of beginners. Everything is simple here – if your bush looks similar, then you have too little light. Increase its power.
The seedling began to suddenly turn yellow and died
Most likely, problems with the pH of irrigation water or soil, or a combination thereof. And maybe – and light stress. Sprouts do not like too bright lighting. At first, it is better to hold the lamp higher.
Leaves fade, even despite heavy watering, the tip and edges of the leaf bend inward
Most likely, this overflow is one of the most frequent “sores” of those who grow for the first time. It is generally accepted that plants love water and no matter how many lei it will not be worse – however, this is not so. The roots of the plant need oxygen. Therefore, hemp loves moderate watering. The pot should not be too wet, otherwise the roots do not receive oxygen, and there is even a danger of rotting if you have planted a non-drying swamp in the pot. If your plants have overflow, do not water them for several days until the soil dries. If after this the problem does not go away, then most likely the overflow lasted for such a considerable time that the roots of the plant were affected.
The tip and edges of the sheet are bent inward
The bush is apparently healthy, but for some reason, on some branches, the leaves are bent inward, in a manner similar to the symptoms of overflow, but are you ready to swear you didn’t pour much? In this case, check if the fan hits your bush too hard. Prolonged exposure to a powerful stream can lead to a wind burn, and one of its initial symptoms is the tips of foliage bending with a claw. A direct strong stream of plants is best not to blow.
You also need to pay attention to how saturated the leaves are. If the leaves are of normal green color, most likely this is indeed a wind burn. If the greens are very thick, dark, most likely, the bend of the tips is caused by an excess of nitrogen. In addition, a wind burn rarely appears immediately on the whole bush. Usually only one small part suffers, located closest to the fan. With an excess of nitrogen, “claws” appear throughout the bush.
Leaves turn yellow and fall off
If foliage suddenly began to turn yellow on a seemingly adult bush, then this is a sign that your plant does not have enough nitrogen – one of the three main nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium). With a lack of nitrogen, chlorophyll – it is he who gives the foliage a green color – is not produced in sufficient quantities. As a result, the foliage dies and easily falls off even with minor manipulation with it.
If you find this picture, then you should immediately resolve the issue with nutrients – adjust the composition and dose of fertilizers. However, this is not always easy to do if you grow, for example, on organics. The most reasonable thing is to initially take a responsible approach to the issue of fertilizers and from the very beginning to use correctly calculated compote of mineral fertilizers, of course, having a pH meter and TDS meter. And by learning how it all works.
But not always yellowing and dying of leaves is a symptom of a deficiency. If the oldest foliage turns yellow and falls off, which is in the thick shadow of a young shoot, then this is a natural process. Not receiving light, the sheet dies as unnecessary.
The foliage is too dark to a black tint
Too much nitrogen.
The stalks of the leaves turned pink / purple
This is a deficiency of the second of the three most important plant nutrients – phosphorus. It is wiser to increase the dosage of this element.
However, sometimes this color of the stems is a feature of genetics. To distinguish one from the other, check for other signs of phosphorus deficiency – colored spots on leaves, saturated greens and fleshy, rough texture of foliage.
The tips of the leaf lightened \\ turned brown
Such yellowing of the tips and teeth of the leaf most likely indicates a deficiency of potassium. The third key element in hemp nutrition.
Rust brown spots on old leaves.
Deficiency of calcium and magnesium. Calcium plays a huge role in the division of plant cells, along with potassium. A fairly frequent deficit that occurs if a grower is inexperienced is limited to introducing only NPK. The choice of means for feeding the plant with calcium and magnesium is wide: from specialized products in growers, such as CalMag, or magnesium sulfate – as the cheapest option for replenishing magnesium.
Another sign of calcium deficiency is that the leaves look dry, brittle and begin to twist.
The tips of the sheet are “lit.”
Most likely, this is an overdose of fertilizers. It is recommended to reduce the dosage of fertilizers, and if the symptoms are accompanied by others, for example, yellowing of the leaves, then it is more reasonable to wash the soil.
In chat rooms they constantly write about some kind of “mikra”. What is it?
In addition to nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium — the three main nutrients for your plants — they also require trace elements: the calcium, magnesium, and sulfur, manganese, boron, zinc, and copper already mentioned above. Cannabis requires a complete set of nutrients. It is these microelements that are called Grovers. Quite often, mikra can be found in fertilizers. If yours do not contain them, then you have to add mikra additionally.
I fertilize, but the deficits do not disappear
Elimination of plant nutrition problems will not lead to the fact that the old foliage affected by deficits will magically turn green again. New foliage will be healthy if the plant is on a veg. If the young foliage is sick and at the same time you seem to be fertilizing, then there may be several reasons for this: either you have problems with pH and the plant does not absorb elements, or if the piash is fine (and you calibrate the piash meter often), insufficient dosage of fertilizers.
Soil composition can also play a bad joke. For example, if one of the elements in it is small (for example, phosphorus), then the introduction of complex fertilizers works poorly. Such a deficit must be treated manually – with an individual compote of fertilizers with the correct composition.
Leaves twists boat up
If the edges of the sheet are bent up, then this is a symptom of the temperature effect – heat. Check the temperature in the box, and also if your thermometer is working. It should not be forgotten that the actual temperature of the soil and on the surface of the sheet can significantly differ in some cases from the “average for the hospital.” And if the thermometer shows a seemingly acceptable +28, then under the rays of a powerful DNAT-600, for example, the soil in the grow bag can warm up to +30 in the upper layer, which is fatal for the roots located there.
Leaves reach for the light
Despite the fact that some beginners are frightened – if hemp raises its leaves, as if reaching for the light, opening a bush, this is exactly the opposite – evidence of the health of the bush. Watching him, you will see that more often he does this at the same time – somewhere in the second half of his daylight hours.
But if the upper leaves stand upright, this is an attempt by the plant to protect itself from an excess of light and heat from the lamp. Move the lamp away.
And vice versa. If before turning off the light you see drooping foliage, then you should not be scared. Cannabis is tired and already asleep. Just a thing.
Turns the leaves like heat, but the temperature is normal / discoloration of the segments
If, in addition to this symptom, you also found spots of incomprehensible genesis, then we can talk about a tobacco mosaic virus. Brownish rashes appear on the foliage and cones, and twists the foliage, as from the effects of heat. Also, some segments of the leaf may turn yellow, as with nitrogen starvation. Unfortunately, this scourge is practically not treated, it is recommended to remove the affected areas. In addition, the disease can spread to your other plants. Fortunately, the virus is not so rare.
Turns the foliage also with a lack of calcium. In this case, rusty spots appear on the leaves (see above).
The stem / trunk broke
If during bending or for some other reason a branch or even the main trunk of a plant is broken, then you should not be scared – if the branch did not come off at all and the connecting tissues remained, then the fracture site will heal by itself. Branches with more serious injuries can be tried to grow together with a band-aid or even ordinary household adhesive tape.
Mold wound up in a pot of earth
This happens if you have a habit of planting a swamp in a pot or store dead foliage there. If the boxing also has high humidity – here it is, a ready-made recipe for mold formation. What to do? If you find mold, then you should act immediately – to start, manually remove all lesions and run to the garden store for specialized mold preparations. If you grabbed late and the lesion is very strong, then a plant transplant with mold treatment should be required.
The bush is very different in appearance from those in the reports
Most likely, this is a variation in phenotype. There are hemp varieties that can have several phenotypes at once.
The bush does not show signs of flowering after transferring to 12 \\ 12
Flowering is a very slow process. In order for you to see distinct changes in the appearance of your bush, it may take 7-10 days, sometimes longer. Therefore, do not rush to the question in the Grover chat or on the forum when the bush still doesn’t blossom a week after the timer is switched to 12 \\ 12. Your hemp will certainly bloom, you just have to give it time. Late flowering may occur due to excess nitrogen in the soil. It can also be genetically determined. It is recommended to accelerate flowering by washing the soil from the charge of fertilizers on a vegan and applying the composition on flowering. Also, the plant can be left for several days in pitch darkness before switching to a 12 \\ 12 lighting cycle.
Slow flowering may be due to a violation of the 12-hour regime of darkness. For example, if the growbox is not completely airtight and a small amount of light from the outside gets there at night. Another common mistake – the grower looks into the box after turning off the lamps. Neither one nor the other is allowed. The darkness at night during the flowering stage should be full and continuous for 12 hours.
Leaves began to actively yellow and die
Flowering is the peak of a plant’s life when its appetites are rapidly increasing. And if things are not going well with you, then transferring the plant to flowering will reveal all these jambs. However, even perfect nutrition will not help the leaves. Do not forget that hemp is an annual plant and after flowering death awaits it. Flowering is the autumn of the life of your bush. And by the end of the cycle, in any case, he will approach “tired” – having lost plentiful foliage. At the same time, your task is to maintain the plant’s health for as long as possible and monitor the increase in the mass of cones.
Mold appeared on the cones
A terrible misfortune that can put an end to the harvest, because it is strictly not recommended to eat those affected by mold. Affected areas must be removed immediately, as well as to determine the factors of the occurrence of mold (excessive humidity, water entering the cones, poor ventilation and airflow) and eliminate them. The use of the drug phytosporin to combat mold and prevent its occurrence gives good results. Especially in the outdore.
How to understand that hemp has ripened?
Without a microscope, no way. One can judge the maturity of cannabis only by examining the state of its hemp with a magnifying glass. Half of them became amber – it’s time to clean. In terms of the appearance of the cone itself, maturity cannot be determined.
Trichomes are not amber, although maturation on the passport has come
The maturity dates according to the passport is a very approximate indicator, which can vary dramatically depending on growing conditions and even on the specific phenotype of the variety. But on average, in practice, one or two additional weeks are required for the maturity dates according to the passport.
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They are called “hats” or peel, the very seed shells that remain after germination. They prevent cotyledon leaves from opening, which is critical, and often just hang on a leaf. I’d like to take it off, but it’s scary, and it’s impossible with my hands. And what to do if the seed coat is not removed, how to remove and not damage: 3 methods. And most importantly: 5 reasons why she stays.
Why and when seedlings emerge in the “hat”: who is to blame if the cotyledons are not opened
And if the seedlings have not dropped the seed peel. Why? And we are to blame: we created the conditions.
The sprout sprouts down, a loop forms from above: a submedicular knee (hypocotyl) is formed. During the “somersault”, the hypoktyl also pulls out cotyledons from the soil, the embryonic kidney (plume) – in the future, the main shoot.
It is necessary to rub on the soil mixture – on micro particles of soil. And if there is no soil resistance, the coefficient of friction and compression is low, the depth of embedment, humidity, structure and other factors are to blame: temperature, preparation for sowing, for example.
Seeding depth: surface sowing
With the surface sowing of medium and large seeds – from tomatoes, pepper, eggplant (medium) to pumpkin, cucumber, melon (large), this happens. To what height should the seeds be buried?
Formula: embedment depth \u003d 1.5-2 height or 2-2.5 seed diameter. It all depends on the size.
- Large seeds (pumpkin, beans, peas) are buried to 3.5-4 and 5 cm, depending on the soil.
- Medium (tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, carrots with parsley, radishes) – from 1.5-2 to 2.5 cm.
- For small ones (celery, lettuce, poppy seeds, wild strawberries), surface sowing + 1-2 mm of soil dusted from above is shown, sowing in snow or sand.
And also – the mechanical composition of the soil. The dense clay structure is higher than sowing, light (a large percentage of tyrsa, sand, coconut – deeper).
It is important not to be afraid to condense: slightly, but you need to condense: remember the resistance coefficient.
Seeds in the worst case can not break through, at best – they germinate with the shell.
2. Soil structure
Too light, loose from the excess of torus or sand, loose, as well as heavy not good: not meeting resistance, the sprouts sprout with the seed coat.
What to do? Add at least 1/3 of the purchased soil or garden to peat, thyrs.
3. Too wet or dry ground
During the germination, the containers with seedlings are covered with a film, and a miniparnik is covered with glass. This is also an indicator of humidity. There is a lot of condensate – waterlogged, and t is clearly increased. Little or not dry, you need to moisten from a spray bottle.
Why? Coarse particles for friction are needed. And if the soil is porridge-like or like dust – how to get out?
4. They are cold! Or hot
At lower t, the germination energy decreases. The soil temperature for different crops is different.
- Pepper needs from 25 ° C to + 27 . 30 ° C – optimally: with the last value in 5-7 days it rises.
- Tomato – up to 25 ° C.
- Eggplant up to + 23 . + 27 ° C, extreme +27 ° C.
- Salad at 15 ° C is enough for 2-3 days to germinate.
- Parsnip at +20 ° C will produce loops in 5-8 days.
- Onions at +15 ° C – 4-5 days.
Important! You will be surprised how t soil is below air.
Insert the thermometer: at room temperature + 23 . + 25 ° C it can show only + 12 . + 15 ° C. When evaporated, moisture reduces the temperature. Naturally, the temperature regime is often violated.
At low t, the production of enzymes is slowed down, the formation of hormones, including growth, auxins, growth processes are not activated – as with elevated ones, the intensity of respiration decreases.
5. Overdried seeds and soaking
Soaking speeds up swelling and germination, but more often only swelling.
The lack of oxygen necessary to activate the production of enzymes slows down the process.
Experiments with beans (!) Showed: when soaking for 4 hours, germination improved, 16 hours led to damage to the seeds. Although it is believed that it is imperative to “soak” it.
And also amino acids, proteins, enzymes are washed away. And from excess moisture, proteins, sugars, amino acids, and vitamins begin to synthesize, which leads to their irrational consumption.
This is a false alarm: a deceived fetus will not receive them in the phase he needs.
Therefore, it is better to replace the classical procedure by spreading it on a dampened napkin, foam rubber: there is moisture and there is no excess, and it does not interfere with breathing. And do not cook, do not fry the seeds!
Not all seeds need to be warmed up before planting, and very carefully: you can damage the endosperm under the seed coat.
Melons and gourds love to “bask”, cucumber – but not higher than + 30 . + 35 C, dry heat. But at t +30, many of the peppers and eggplant, and tomatoes, may not rise: not their method.
A separate word about the low quality of the material: unripened seeds that carry the infection, over-dried, initially have low germination, and defects can occur during germination.
And finally: how to take off the hat
If the cotyledons cannot open and shed, shed the seed peel, what to do.
Do not spray with water, even from a spray bottle, as is often advised: this is the decay of seedlings. Surviving is a black leg.
- Do not take sprouts with your hands: it will damage and burn tissue. As a last resort, hold your hands in ice water, put on gloves (not latex – many stick).
- Drop from a pipette, a syringe a couple of drops of warm water. After an hour – more, and up to 3-4 times. The shell will swell, and it can be removed with a needle, tweezers, if it does not fall.
- There is a method of reverse immersion: sprinkle seedlings with a thin layer of vermiculite, sand, light moist soil. But there is a risk of non-germination, and it slows down this development. Therefore, soaking is better.
What is the third method? Best.
If the cotyledons are fully opened, the seedlings are strong and peppy, and the shell barely holds – these are trifles of life. Wait a couple of days: it will fall off.
Bathing in a drop of water is justified only for the disclosure of cotyledon leaves. And that is not always the case.
If the cotyledons have not been opened for a long time, it is better to reject such seedlings, alas: this is an almost guaranteed developmental delay. Nearly.
About seedlings interesting:
Let the seedlings grow strong, and – without a hat. Good harvest!
In order to successfully grow healthy seedlings, it is necessary to regularly monitor growth and timely eliminate probable errors, as well as prevent their occurrence. Consider the most common problems with seedlings which you may have if you do not follow the basic rules for growing seedlings. Our recommendations will help to avoid the most common mistakes and will be useful for both experienced gardeners and beginners in this matter.
In order for the seedlings to develop well, it is necessary to create optimally comfortable conditions for it, namely, carefully monitor the following parameters:
- Sufficient soil moisture.
- Optimum temperature conditions.
- Proper air circulation in the room.
- Adequate lighting.
- Nutrients in the required amounts.
Even amateur gardeners know this information, but knowledge does not help all gardeners in growing full-grown seedlings.
The reasons why seeds do not always germinate
There are many reasons that affect seed germination. The main reasons are as follows:
The first and main reason: The use of non-life old seed. In order to determine whether it is good, a quick check is done by experienced gardeners. They first soak the seeds in the stimulator, and then place them on a damp cotton towel and drop them in a plastic bag for a while. It is better to place the bag in a warm place until small sprouts appear.
If a week passes, and you do not notice any changes, then the seeds are not germinating. Then go to a specialty store or market for fresh seed, which after purchase, check in the same way. The seeds of many plants retain their germination for at least two years, if stored correctly.
Common problems with seed germination.
The second reason for poor germination is sowing seeds to great depths. During planting, be sure to take into account the specifics of the sowing of each plant. Some of the seeds need to be placed on the surface, the soil should be moist, and they will germinate only under the film (for example,), while other seeds prefer to grow under a thin layer of substrate and so on.
The third reason is sowing in cold, water-saturated soil. In this case, the seeds rot and seedlings do not appear. For this reason, it is necessary to equip the drainage system and make openings in the tanks to ensure ventilation.
And finally, the fourth common cause of seed germination is not steaming seeds. It is not recommended that containers in which moist crops are planted be placed in too warm places (for example, on heating radiators). In order to avoid steaming, you need to put magazines or books under the container or use special heat mats.
Seeds with hard coatings (spinach, radishes, beets and others) are best germinated in a room with a cool air temperature. And it’s best to plant them in open ground.
Why sprouts do not reset their shell
If you sow seeds and wait for seedlings, but they don’t want to drop the outer shell, then the sprouts appeared from weakened, completely unformed seeds that should not be dived — it’s better to throw them away.
Sprouts do not drop their shell for several reasons, the main of which are the following:
- Highly surface sowing.
- From the container in which the seeds were sown, the film was removed early, which led to the seed shell drying out.
To eliminate errors, it is necessary to periodically wet the “caps” – then the sprouts themselves will drop their shells. You can also try carefully, without injuring the delicate sprout, pry the shell with a needle. Hands can not be touched, because seedlings can die because of this.
For what reasons seedlings are elongated and pale
If you get elongated and pale seedlings, then this was due to:
Lack of lighting. If the seedlings do not receive enough light, they are drawn to the nearest light sources. Therefore, you need to place them under the lamp itself or purchase special lamps for indoor plants, which are able to provide a wide selection of the spectrum of lighting needed for plants. Best seedlings develop and grow if you provide it with 15 hours of lighting during the day.
Remember! Germinating seeds do not need light, but high temperature, but sprouts cannot develop when there is a lack of light, and they need to lower the temperature. For this reason, a couple of days before the shoots appear, try to lower the temperature and create maximum lighting. In order to constantly circulate air, you can use a fan.
Elimination of possible mistakes when growing seedlings.
Close location. In order to eliminate this drawback, you can expand the pots or pick the plants, choosing a larger container for them. However, it must be borne in mind that with each dive, plants inhibit their growth and development by 11-15 days. Sometimes, if necessary, with the help of a pick, you can delay the planting of seedlings in the open ground (if you need to wait until suitable weather conditions come).
An excess of fertilizers. In this case, the seedlings are transplanted into the soil, in which nutrients are contained in a smaller amount, and then it must be treated with the Athlete preparation – either pour seedlings under the root or spray. Sprouts begin to water when two or three leaves are formed.
Why shoots are uneven
Friendly seedlings are observed if seed of appropriate quality is used. However, sometimes sprouted shoots are obtained for other reasons:
If the seeds are covered with an uneven layer of substrate. At the same time, seeds that are deeper can either sprout inferior sprouts, or in general they will not be able to get through thick soil, so they do not germinate.
If the seeds are sown in a clay weighted substrate. After watering, a “crust” is created on such soil, which prevents the sprouts from developing – they cannot even break through it.
For sowing seeds, it is necessary to use a light substrate, and best of all, if the base of the soil is composed of high neutral peat or crushed vermiculite. The mulching layer should have a thickness equal to the diameter of the seeds planted.
As soon as seedlings from large seeds appear, many gardeners try to quickly proceed to the next stage – they remove the film, lower the temperature, increase the amount of water when watering. These abrupt changes can inhibit the development of seeds that have not yet sprouted.
Due to the maintenance of improper temperature conditions in soil moisture.
When oversaturation of seeds during the initial treatments, which were to “improve germination.”
For what reasons there is a lodging and death of seedlings
If you notice a darkening and thinning of the root part of the sprouts, then they are affected by the “black leg”. The disease is provoked by fungi of the genus Fusarium. The problem occurs when the soil is cold, watering it excessively, or infecting the substrate.
To neutralize new shoots, steaming the soil before sowing. If only the initial signs of the disease appeared, it is necessary to remove diseased seedlings with lumps of soil near them and stop watering. Pour calcined sand under the stalks. Then water the plants with a solution of potassium permanganate or one of the preparations: Fundazol or Topsin. However, the most reliable method remains the transplantation of young sprouts into new soil, which was previously disinfected.
Unexpected lodging of seedlings may occur due to:
- Untimely watering.
- Excessive moisture, in which there is a suffocation of seedlings in the soil.
- Low soil temperature, which contributes to rotting of roots.
- Poor drainage.
- Excessively acidic or alkaline soil.
- An excess of trace elements.
- Urine of cats, which is reflected in the color of seedlings and is the reason for their lodging.
Why does the color of plant leaves change
If the leaves of the seedlings are pale and dull, it means that they do not have enough light or they need nitrogen fertilizers. In this case, it is necessary to rearrange the seedlings to a lit place or apply illumination (a half-watt fluorescent lamp is needed, which should be installed at a distance of 14-25 cm above the plants). Seedlings grown from seeds are of higher quality if the seeds are sown later and grow under natural light, and not during early sowing under lamps.
The room temperature should be the lower, the darker the room. However, the indicator should not be lower than + 13.5 ° C. If the temperature is too low, the seedlings will stop developing and even die under such conditions.
The conditions necessary for the proper development of seedlings.
When nitrogen deficiency is noticed, plants should be fed with a solution of ammonium nitrate or urea (the proportions should not exceed 7-10 grams of substance per 10 liters of water).
If spots of blue-red color appeared on the leaves of sprouts, it means that the soil is supercooled and phosphorus is inaccessible to plants, which is so necessary for their roots.
The appearance of a dry border indicates a lack of potassium. In both cases, the sprouts should be fed. To do this, use complex fertilizers. Also take care of creating favorable conditions for seedlings.
Why do plants after a dive stop their growth
After a picking, the sprouts often stop developing for a while. The following reasons affect this:
Mistakes made during a dive. For example, long shoot roots were not pinched, and when they were planted on a substrate, they bent or intertwined, which led to rotting or suspension of plant growth or their death from fungal diseases, the causative agents of which can easily penetrate the plant if its root system is damaged.
When an air cavity formed around the roots during planting, the drying of the root hairs began, which at the same time cannot function well.
Low temperatures and nutrient deficiencies.
Some species of plants negatively perceive the picking process. These are plants with a core and weak root system – cucumbers, peppers and other vegetable crops. These plants are planted in open ground, and peppers and cucumbers must be sown in separate containers with only a few pieces.
Before planting in open ground, seedlings must be hardened. Hardening begins on a cloudy day so that the seedlings gradually accustom themselves to direct sunlight.
Have you encountered a problem when seedlings could not promptly throw off the seed coat? You must have noticed that such plants looked frail and lagged far behind their relatives in development.
Most often, the situation is resolved by the natural death of weak plants. When I look at such dead babies, my hands just itch to help them quickly get rid of seed caps;). In the article, I would like to discuss with you whether this is worth doing? And if it is, then how to carry out the operation with minimal damage to the tiny seedling?
Seedlings that have difficulty dropping the seed coat are justly considered weaker. So they are such plants are less promising in terms of yield.
I often had to observe even the death of such seedlings, since the remnants of the seed completely block their growth. The most obvious cause of trouble is bad seeds.
But it comes to my mind a few more versions why the seedlings are unable to independently shed the seed coat:
- the seeds are planted to a too shallow depth;
- seeds are covered with too loose substrate;
- the soil after sowing is not compacted;
- early removed the film, creating the optimal microclimate in the container, and in dry air the seed coat was very dry.
I note that you should not sound the alarm ahead of time. Give your green pets a chance to cope with this task themselves.
However, if the matter is clearly stalled, then the poor can be helped a little.
Better not try to remove the seed coat with your fingers – the cotyledonous leaves of peppers and tomatoes are fragile and can easily be damaged by careless manipulations. Drop from a pipette or syringe onto the leaflets with warm water and wait until the hat softens a little. And then try to gently pry it with the blunt side of the needle.
And so that seedlings with stuck seed coat appear to a minimum, adhere to the following recommendations:
- Soak the seeds before sowing so that they are saturated with moisture and swell. The seed coat will become soft and supple and the plant will easily get rid of it. Comprehensive information on presowing seed treatment methods can be found here.
- Sow dry seeds to a depth of at least 1-1.5 centimeters, and be sure to tighten the surface of the substrate. Thus, the seedlings themselves easily throw off the interfering “clothes” when they make their way to the light through a rather thick layer of compacted soil. But here it is important not to overdo it and not to plant the seeds too deep, otherwise you can remain completely without seedlings. And one more thing: the seeds of such crops as celery and many other spicy herbs are so small that they are sown almost without dusting the ground. Therefore, the second advice is not applicable to them.
Let’s not forget that in nature there is nothing useless or superfluous, and the seed coat up to a certain point performs an important function. It supplies the plant with the nutrients that it needs at an early stage of growth, when the root system is still poorly developed. Therefore, carefully monitor the state of seedlings and intervene in the work of mother nature only if absolutely necessary.Why the cotyledon does not open cotyledons. What’s with the bush? Cannabis FAQ. Possible problems with seedlings It is very rare when newcomers spend a hassle-free grove. When planning to grow ]]>