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growing marijuana in massachusetts

So you want to grow your own marijuana? Here’s what to know.

If you want to grow good weed, you’ll have to work for it.

Maybe it’s the convenience of having it in the house, or perhaps you like to do things yourself.

Whatever your reasons are, Massachusetts state laws allow you to take things into your own hands when it comes to marijuana — green thumb included.

People over the age of 21 can grow up to six marijuana plants in their homes (with a maximum of 12 plants per household), so long as they are kept in a locked location and out of public view.

If you’re thinking about growing your own marijuana, there’s plenty to know — where to get seeds, the equipment needed, and, of course, what to keep in mind when tending to your crop.

“There is an up-front cost at first … and it takes time and effort,” Jon Napoli, owner of the Boston Gardner in Roxbury, told Boston.com. “If you want the reward at the end, you have to be patient and put in time every day.”

Here’s a crash course in what growing your own marijuana entails:

How do I get the seeds?

The quickest and perhaps the most direct way to get your hands on some seeds would be to receive them from someone who already has their own grow setup. (Legally, a person can give up to an ounce in seeds, similar to the law surrounding gifting harvested marijuana. You can also have up to 10 ounces of marijuana in your home, although any amount over an ounce must be locked up.)

But if you don’t have that option, you may be able to find some elsewhere.

State regulations allow for licensed retailers to sell seeds, but it’s not clear at this point in time if dispensaries will have those in stock.

Many people purchase seeds online, although it is important to note that under federal law, both possessing marijuana (seeds included) and mailing it across state lines remains illegal.

Online shopping can also be a bit risky, according to Will Ried, manager of Rootdown Hydroponics Indoor Garden Center in Medford, who cautions that if you’re getting seeds from a random seller, you may not be getting your money’s worth.

Overall, seed prices vary. A look at a few online sellers showed prices between $20 and $200, depending on the strain and how many seeds you want (how many are in a single pack also varies between retailers).

What are the basics?

Seeds

Traditional cannabis plants are either male or female.

If you purchase regular seeds, each seed therefore has a 50-50 chance of growing into either one. Male plants are helpful if you’re looking to produce more seeds, but female plants, which have bigger flowers with higher cannabinoid levels, are the ones you’ll want to harvest, according to Matt Reisman, owner of Gardin Hydroponics & Soil in Braintree.

It can make a packet of regular seeds a real challenge — and a real gamble.

For beginners, Reisman recommends growing from feminized seeds — seeds that, in short, are made to not create any male plants, according to the marijuana information website Leafly.com.

Temperature and lighting

Generally speaking, marijuana plants require about 80 degrees during the day and around 50 degrees at night, Reisman said.

Eighteen hours of light is needed for traditional cannabis seeds to grow in the vegetative cycle. To flower, the plants should have an even 12-hour split between red-orange light and darkness, he said.

How long does it take to grow?

The growing process varies in length, but it usually takes at least four-and-a-half months for a small grow, Reisman said.

However, auto-flowering plants — which stem from a different strain, according to Leafly — require only 70 to 75 days to grow and flower and do not need any changes in their lighting period, said Dan Ruta, manager of Gardin Hydroponics & Soil.

The tradeoff for the faster process though is that these small plants produce less to harvest, he said. (Auto-flowering seeds also have feminized versions, Reisman said.)

“You don’t want to give them too many changes at once because they’re just a very sensitive strain,” Ruta said.

How much marijuana can I harvest from one plant?

There’s no simple answer, according to Ruta.

Many factors play into what you end up with, including the strain, how long you let the plant vegetate, and what kind of nutrients you use.

“There’s a very long list of variables that apply to a yield,” Ruta said.

What is certain, however, is that you’ll have to re-seed every year, he said. Cannabis is not a perennial plant.

What do I need to have?

Equipment can be costly — depending on what you plan to do.

Ried advises beginners to start small. While the law allows for up to 12 plants in a home (six per person), it doesn’t mean you should go for the limit, he said.

“Especially if it’s your first time, I would recommend two or three (plants) really at the most, four if you have the room for it, just because they can quickly spiral and it’s … a lot easier to handle issues with three plants rather than 12 plants,” he said. “So starting small and being able to scale your grow is kind of a good place to start.”

For indoors

An indoor setup essentially means replicating outdoor conditions in a controlled environment — one where a quality light is your best friend and most important component.

“The number one thing is if you have a bad light, it’s just not going to come out great,” Reisman said.

High-wattage lights can be pretty inexpensive on websites like Amazon, and Reisman cautions potential buyers that the wattage advertised isn’t always what you get.

He recommends a ceramic metal halide lamp for beginners — a good quality “high intensity discharge,” or HID, light that’s very energy efficient and used for growing the plant.

For the flowering stage, a red-orange light is needed, so a high pressure sodium lamp, another kind of HID light, is handy, according to Leafly.

Other lighting options include fluorescent lights — while inexpensive, they are less efficient — and LED lights, which can be costly, the website says.

A small tent — one that’s 2-by-4, 3-by-3, or 4-by-4 feet — is also key to both maintaining the right conditions and keeping the marijuana odor from intruding into the rest of your home, according to Ried. Leafly also recommends placing your setup in a spot with easy access to fresh air that’s also cool and dry.

A fan is must for air circulation. A carbon filter also helps remove that well-known smell from escaping the tent, Reisman said.

Depending on how much you’re willing to splurge, a reverse osmosis system can give you purified water for your plants, although spring water also does the trick if you’re a new hobbyist looking to save some cash, according to Reisman, who said simple nutrient programs — versus a multi-bottle nutrient system — can also provide for a good grow for beginners. Ried said growers can go either way on synthetic or organic nutrients regardless if the grow is indoors or outside.

For a more advanced setup, a dehumidifier and an air conditioner can prove useful, depending on the kind of environment you are looking to create, according to Napoli, who said a strain like indica yields a shorter plant more suitable to a small space.

“As far as just like specialty equipment, that really becomes a thing if you’re getting into hydroponics. … You can get certain controllers and timers and stuff like that that will regulate a lot of your fans or your filters,” Ried said. “There’s nothing super specialty I would say you need other than the lighting.”

Altogether, a simple indoor rig could set you back a few hundred dollars, the experts say.

For outdoors

A small, outdoor grow doesn’t have to be a complex setup, according to Reisman.

But keep in mind that the law requires plants be in a locked area, so that means either installing a greenhouse or putting the plants in a fenced-in area under lock and key, Ruta said. The other legal requirement that plants must be kept out of public view means a tall fence (think at least 6 feet, Ruta said) is also a must have.

Organic nutrients that you can find at most garden stores can make for a good outdoor grow, but, naturally, how well your plants fare in the great outdoors also depends on other factors, Reisman said.

Mother Nature in New England, unlike the warmer weather states like California, does not always provide the best conditions for marijuana growing, experts say. (Some advice: Take growing tips from websites based in other parts of the country with a grain of salt, Ried said. “T here’s no perfect way to do this.”)

Lots of rain and humidity is problematic and could leave plants moldy and prone to fungus. An outside grow would require keeping plants particularly clean and checking for pests.

“You want as much sun as possible, and, unfortunately in New England, you start losing that sun in the fall and that’s when your plants are starting to flower,” Napoli said.

If you’re looking for a strain to plant outdoors, Napoli said sativas can grow pretty big, which makes them appropriate when you have the space outside. A greenhouse works best though, since the flowering period for sativa may be a bit too long for the Massachusetts climate, he said.

Is it difficult?

“It’s definitely something that you have to pay attention to and take care of and spend time every day on,” Napoli said.

While there’s a common perception that marijuana is a weed — meaning it’ll simply just grow — it doesn’t mean you’ll get a quality harvest, according to Reisman.

“Find a store where they’re willing to mentor you and excited to help you,” Reisman advises. “Don’t be embarrassed … everyone’s a beginner once.”

Bumps in the road may come, but don’t get discouraged, Ried said.

“I would say if you’re afraid you’re going to kill it, you’re going to miswater (sic) it, you’re going to mishandle it, they’re pretty resilient,” he said. “Don’t let that scare you.”

So you want to grow your own marijuana? Here’s what to know. If you want to grow good weed, you’ll have to work for it. Maybe it’s the convenience of having it in the house, or perhaps you

This ‘micro’-sized license is giving Mass. residents a chance to launch small marijuana businesses

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As the Massachusetts marijuana industry continues to grow, state regulators hope one particular program will give aspiring entrepreneurs who live in the state an advantage to launch their own small businesses.

The microbusiness license — one of many issued by the state’s Cannabis Control Commission — is exactly how it sounds. It’s a micro-sized version of a larger marijuana business, designed specifically for Massachusetts residents.

And for many people who aren’t looking to form large companies or open retail stores, it’s the perfect fit.

“It’s a good size to bite off,” said Kimberly Gibson, the majority owner of Gibby’s Garden LLC in Uxbridge, which received its final license in May — the first microbusiness in the state to reach that stage. Gibson owns and operates the company with her husband, son, and brother.

“It’s a good fit for us, for a family business,” she said.

The microbusiness license allows for small-scale cultivation and/or manufacturing (companies can apply for a license that includes just one or both). The Gibby’s Garden license allows both.

There’s also a residency requirement: The majority of a microbusiness applicant’s executives have to have lived in Massachusetts for at least a year.

The license type provides a number of benefits, including a streamlined application process that lets the company apply for cultivation and manufacturing without submitting two separate applications. Microbusiness applicants also get half off the annual licensing fees — amounting to about $312 for outdoor cultivating, $625 for indoor cultivating, and $2,500 for manufacturing — making it more accessible to the average person, Gibson said.

“The microbusiness is a nice fit for someone who just had a heart for the industry,” she said.

Gibby’s Garden will grow its own marijuana flower and create a line of products to sell wholesale to retailers. They want to be a “microbud” — a term they coined — “like the microbrew of beers,” Gibson said.

Gibson’s son, Joe Gibson, is the head grower for the company and said the microbusiness license gives them the opportunity to focus on craft cultivation and branding for their products.

“We want to be in the niche market,” he said.

They’re not the only ones.

Two other aspiring microbusinesses have provisional licenses from the state commission, and several more have submitted their applications.

Audrey Park and Lucas Wiggins, who together make up Hothouse Holyoke Inc., want to make cannabis-infused, gluten-free edibles in an effort to make marijuana use more accessible for those with gluten allergies.

Their business, which is in the Sira Accelerator training and mentorship program, received its provisional license in January.

“We don’t have the capital to start a giant cultivation,” Wiggins said. “We knew from early on that we were going to have to be very limited. We were happy to see they carved out a little spot for the small people.”

Both former teachers, Park and Wiggins moved to Massachusetts from Texas in 2016. When they began sharing their gluten-free, chocolate-chip cookies with colleagues, they half-joked they should start a business.

They began reading up on microbusinesses, and Park realized it was a “chance for a smaller company to make it in this industry.”

“It’s just more of a feasible way for a smaller company to start out,” she said.

And that’s really what the Cannabis Control Commission had built the license for, said Commissioner Jennifer Flanagan.

Even in early discussions, Flanagan said, there had to be a license type that would bring local residents into the industry and give them a chance to launch something small.

“I said, ‘If we’re going to have the truly small business, then let’s make it a small business that is for people in Massachusetts, by people in Massachusetts,’ ” she said.

That’s why the residency requirement of the license, in particular, was important to Flanagan.

“I really think that when you’re trying to implement any kind of regulation . . . you have to really take into account the little guy, the people that are the backbone of their community,” she said. “. . . I feel strongly that it’s the guy from the hometown whose family’s from there — and they have friends and family, and their roots are there — [who is] really going to have a great impact on the area.”

“It’s a good size to bite off,” said Kimberly Gibson, the majority owner of the the first microbusiness to receive a final license in Massachusetts. ]]>