The Role Of Cannabis In The Treatment Of Leukemia
Cannabis has been shown to be effective at killing various forms of cancer cells. Research shows that compounds within the herb may be effective at battling leukemia and other forms of cancer.
Cannabis has been used as a medicinal herb throughout thousands of years of human history. Its illegal status is an extremely recent phenomenon and luckily for thousands of medical patients and recreational users, prohibition appears to be coming to an abrupt end. Scientific analysis is proving that compounds within the plant, such as cannabinoids and terpenes, have powerful ameliorative effects against an entire host of diseases and medical conditions. Although hard to believe, cannabis is also documented as having a positive effect against numerous types of cancer, including leukemia.
Cancer is known as a devastating disease and almost anyone you talk to has had their lives affected by it in some way or another. It was estimated in 2016 that in the United States alone, 1,685,210 new cases of cancer were diagnosed and that 595,690 people were suspected to die from the disease. These numbers are staggering, with the most common cancers that same year being breast, lung, bladder, and leukemia. Conventional treatments offered to individuals include chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation. These methods often pose extremely detrimental side effects and clearly have limits when looking at the data.
Emerging alternative therapies and approaches are on the rise, with cannabis gaining a lot of traction in this area. The American government website cancer.gov even states that cannabinoids have displayed antitumor effects by inducing cell death and inhibiting cell growth.
Leukemia, sometimes referred to as blood cancer, is a cancer that affects blood cells. So far, it is stated that the exact cause of the condition is unknown, however, exposure to radiation, certain forms of chemotherapy, smoking, chemicals, and family history have all been named as potential risk factors. It is estimated that a massive 62,130 new cases of leukemia will be diagnosed within the United States in 2017. 24,500 people are expected to die from the disease within the same year.
Leukemia features the malignancy of blood cells. This usually involves the production of abnormal white blood cells. White blood cells, also called leukocytes, make up around 1 percent of total blood, yet play a vital role in the maintenance of health and defence against disease, illness, and infection. White blood cells flow throughout the bloodstream on patrol against unwelcome intruders in the forms of viruses, bacteria, and other malevolent invaders. White blood cells are formed within bone marrow and go on to be stored in the blood as well as lymphatic tissues. Blood cancers such as leukemia can trigger uncontrolled growth of white blood cells, which can result in infection and dangerous bleeding.
Common symptoms of the disease may include pain in the bones or joints, swollen lymph nodes, fevers, tiredness, bleeding, regular infections, and weight loss. There is no known way to prevent the condition and methods such as chemotherapy, radiation, and bone marrow transplants are used in attempt to treat the disease. Unfortunately, the side effects of chemotherapy, for example, can be devastating and include fatigue, hair loss, infection, nausea, and anaemia.
CANNABIS AND LEUKEMIA
Scientific literature boasts research into the anticancer effects of cannabinoids and shows a potential for their use in cases of leukemia. A paper  published within the International Journal of Oncology explores the anticancer effects of certain cannabinoids when used with chemotherapy.
The authors of the paper state that cannabinoids have been shown to possess anticancer activity when used alone, although some of them show more potent effects against leukemia cells when combined. For example, the authors mention that THC and CBD displayed more favorable effects when paired together as opposed to being used alone. Furthermore, cannabinoid pairs performed even more effectively when used along with chemotherapy agents. It was noted that using cannabinoids after chemotherapy resulted in a greater induction in the death of cancer cells.
The authors of the text state, “Our results suggest that when certain cannabinoids are paired together, the resulting product can be combined synergistically with common anti-leukaemia drugs allowing the dose of the cytotoxic agents to be dramatically reduced yet still remain efficacious.”
A study  published within the journal BioMed Central Cancer argues that THC has been proven to harbour anti-tumor activity. The researchers note that they have anecdotal evidence that THC may have contributed to disease control in a patient with leukemia. The study was conducted in order to test this hypothesis. The researchers evaluated the effects of Dronabinol (a synthetic version of THC) against leukemia cell lines. An antiproliferative effect occurred. It was found that cell death was mediated via the CB1 and CB2 receptors of the endocannabinoid system. The authors of the paper concluded that, “Our study provides rigorous data to support clinical evaluation of THC as a low-toxic therapy option in a well defined subset of acute leukemia patients.”
THC AND APOPTOSIS
One mechanism by which cannabinoids may kill cancer cells is a process known as apoptosis. Apoptosis is a natural function of the human body that results in the controlled death of cells as a part of an organism’s proper growth and development.
A paper  published within the journal Molecular Cancer Research displays that THC induces apoptosis in leukemia T cells.
A POWERFUL CASE STUDY
The studies above display the powerful effects of cannabinoids against cell lines in a laboratory setting. The next study displays a case study, with a sample size of one person, that demonstrates the potential of cannabinoids against leukemia in a human. A paper  published within the journal Case Reports in Oncology documents a case study involving a 14 year old patient diagnosed with an aggressive form of leukemia. The patient underwent aggressive chemotherapy, radiation, and a bone marrow transplant. However, all of these methods failed after a period of 34 months. With no conventional options left, the family of the patient started to orally administer cannabis extracts. A rapid dose-dependant correlation was observed.
The authors state that, “Cannabinoids are usually well tolerated and do not produce the generalised toxic effects of conventional chemotherapies. The family found promise in an organisation known as Phoenix Tears, led by Rick Simpson who had treated several cancers with hemp oil, an extract from the cannabis plant. Rick worked with [the] family to help them prepare the extract.”
It was noted that during the treatment, cancer cell counts started to drop at some point. The researchers note that the cannabinoids within the extract had antiproliferative and proapoptotic properties. Unfortunately, the patient did pass away, however the authors state that “It must be noted that where our most advanced chemotherapeutic agents had failed to control the blast count and had devastating side effect[s] that ultimately resulted in the death of the patient, the cannabinoid therapy had no toxic side effects and only psychosomatic properties, with an increase in the patient’s vitality.”
THE FUTURE OF CANNABIS AS TREATMENT
It seems promising that the active compounds within the cannabis plant will play an effective role in the future of cancer treatment, whether that means they are used alone as primary therapies or in conjunction with current conventional therapies to enhance their outcomes and reduce adverse side effects.Scientific data show that compounds within the cannabis plant exhibit cancer fighting properites that might assist in treating leukemia.
Cannabis Extract Fights ‘Incurable Form’ of Leukemia
Publié le 2 Mai 2014
A remarkable case report documents a 14-year old girl who, after 34-months of chemo, radiation and bone marrow transplant treatments, was given up for dead. Her family discovered research on cannabis extract, and before she died of a secondary complication of her original treatment, used it successfully to put her leukemia into remission.
There are plenty of anecdotal reports of the successful use of cannabis in treating cancer, but few cases occur under conventional medical supervision, and virtually none make it into a peer-reviewed biomedical journal as a case report.
Remarkably, however, just such a case was reported in Case Reports in Oncology last year, and involved a 14-year girl diagnosed with a form of cancer of the white blood cells known as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
Despite a high remission rate for ALL after 5 year of 94% in children and 30-40% in adults using conventional combination chemotherapy, this particular child was diagnosed with a very aggressive (i.e. conventional treatment resistant) form of ALL (positive for the Philadelphia chromosome mutation).
After undergoing a protracted series of unsuccessful conventional treatments over the course of 34 months – including a bone marrow transplant, aggressive chemotherapy and radiation therapy — the girl’s case was pronounced ‘incurable,’ with the patient’s hematologist/oncologist stating that she “suffers from terminal malignant disease,” expecting her condition to progress rapidly towards death.
Because the family received no other suggestions for treatment beyond palliative care, they decided to do research on their own, stumbling on a paper published in Nature Reviews: Cancer in 2003 titled, “Cannibinoids: Potential Anti-Cancer Agents,” which encouraged them to administer oral cannabinoid extracts to the patient. According to the case report:
“The family found promise in an organization known as Phoenix Tears, led by Rick Simpson who had treated several cancers with hemp oil, an extract from the cannabis plant. Rick worked with the family to help them prepare the extract.
With Rick Simpson’s assistance, the family used cannabis oil extract for the next 78 days, with regular monitoring of the blast cell count, the primary indicator of the malignant progression of the disease process.
The figure below shows the successful suppression of the blast cells using cannabis extract.
Clearly, the cannabis extract was effective at inhibiting the uncontrolled proliferation of the girl’s leukemia, without the highly toxic side effects of conventional treatment.
Sadly, however, on day 78, the 14-year old passed away as a consequence of bleeding associated with bowel perforation, and ultimately the lasting adverse effects of the original 34 months of aggressive treatment she had underwent previous to cannabis.
In the discussion portion of the case report, the authors noted,
“The results shown here cannot be attributed to the phenomenon of ‘spontaneous remission’ because a dose response curve was achieved… These results cannot be explained by any other therapies, as the child was under palliative care and was solely on cannabinoid treatment when the response was documented by the SickKids Hospital. The toxicology reports ruled out chemotherapeutic agents, and only showed her to be positive for THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) when she had ‘a recent massive decrease of WBC from 350,000 to 0.3’ inducing tumor lysis syndrome, as reported by the primary hematologist/oncologist at the SickKids Hospital.”
The study authors believe this therapy should be viewed as “polytherapy,” owing to the fact that a wide range of cannabinoids have been found within resinous extract, which demonstrate a variety of anti-cancer properties, e.g. anti-angiogenic, anti-proliferative, etc. They further acknowledged the potential for the profound superiority of cannabinoid therapy to conventional treatments:
“It must be noted that where our most advanced chemotherapeutic agents had failed to control the blast counts and had devastating side effects that ultimately resulted in the death of the patient, the cannabinoid therapy had no toxic side effects and only psychosomatic properties, with an increase in the patient’s vitality.”
For those looking for additional research on the anti-cancer and related health properties of cannabinoids, use our database on cannabis or download our cannabis research pdf. For additional research on potential therapeutic interventions for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) view our ALL research database.Cannabis Extract Fights 'Incurable Form' of Leukemia ]]>